Allah is undetectable to human senses; this does not mean that He does not exist. There are many other realities too that are unnoticeable to human senses, but we do not deny their existence. We sense their presence by observing their noticeable effects on other things. Air, for example, is one of these realities. We feel its presence only when it travels and moves leaves on trees or displaces some objects from one point to the other. Similarly, there are many clues in the entire universe which prove the existence of Allah. The only thing we need to read these signs is an attentive mind.
Detailed attention [observation] towards a physical environment is the first step for the accumulation of knowledge. This knowledge at a later stage helps a person in building perceptions, conceiving ideas, making judgements, and linking connections among different realities. Moreover, this knowledge affects not only the cognition process but learning and behavior of the observer. If for example, one does not know the reality of the sun, he/she would perceive it differently and thus react to it differently.
Detailed observation, in fact, reveals the truth. Allah, therefore, invites humans to observe realities and find the truth.
…. “Observe what is in the heavens and the earth.” ……………………………………………. (10: 101)
In the heavens and the earth are proofs for the believers. And in your own creation, and in the creatures He scattered, are signs for people of firm faith. (45: 3-4)
A detailed observation of the universe, the earth, and biological life reveals that everything came into existence according to certain rules and their systems are precisely calculated to coexist with each other. The distance of the sun from the earth, for example, is precise and ideal for the generation of a biological life. If the sun had been a little farther or closer to the earth, the origination and survival of a biological life would have been impossible. Similarly, each creation is bound in a system and observing rules to maintain its survival.
Do they not look at the camels – how they are created? And at the sky – how it is raised? And at the mountains – how they are installed? And the earth – how it is spread out? (88: 17-20)
Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and earth, and the alternation of the night and the day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which benefits people, and what Allah has sent down from the heavens of rain, giving life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness and dispersing therein every [kind of] moving creature, and [His] directing of the winds and the clouds controlled between the heaven and the earth are signs for a people who use reason. (2: 164)
Detailed observation of the universe ultimately convinces a thoughtful mind that whatever it [the universe] contains cannot be created, and put to work so precisely, coherently, and effectively without an All-Knowing Creator and Regulator.
Allah created the heavens and the earth in truth. Indeed, in that is a sign for the believers [of Allah’s existence] (29: 44)
The beauty of the truth is that it remains constant, no matter by whom, when, and where it is observed. Moreover, it cannot be challenged or denied by any except the ignorant.
As truth remains constant, it satisfies all generations of humans – those who observed universe merely with naked eyes and those who can observe it by using advanced technology – they all find precision and coherence in every structure, function, and system.
One of the qualities of truth is that the more it is explored, the more it reveals realities. The exposure of more realities [truth] further strengthens faith in Allah.
And those who strive for Us – We will surely guide them to Our ways……………… (29: 69)
Truth, thus, not only satisfies inquisitive minds, but it stops the inflow of falsehood towards them forever.
………..We hurl the truth against falsehood, and it crushes it, so it vanishes………….. (21: 18)
Though plain observation of nature is enough to convince the human mind about the presence of Allah, He however, has given some information about some realities at the time when humans had not yet progressed in knowledge and technology to verify it. However, when humans advanced in technology and invented various means to explore the universe, they found that all the information given by Allah is true. Such information strengthens faith in Allah that it is Only He Who is the Creator because nobody else [except the Creator] can give such a precise information about these realities.
Humans took more than a thousand years to learn and confirm the information given by Him. The main objective behind the description of such information [by Allah] is to convince the people of the later generations [the people of the age of technology] that Allah is the All-Knowing Entity – He is the Creator and Regulator of the entire universe.
The human being was created of haste. I will show you My signs, so do not seek to rush Me (21: 37)
………… “Praise belongs to Allah; He will show you His signs, and you will recognize them…………….” (27: 93)
The most surprising part of these signs/clues/information is that without using any science terminology Allah describes the science behind different realities. Such accurate information builds trust in the people that whatever else Allah says is also TRUE.
……………………And who is more truthful than Allah in statement? (4: 87)
Here are some of the signs which Allah has shown to humanity to convince people that He is the Evident Reality.
8.1 PROOFS IN THE ORIGINATION OF THE UNIVERSE
Though humans did not exist at the time of the creation of the universe, they have observed some evidence, on the basis of which they can draw a conclusion that how the universe might have originated. The presence of Cosmic Microwave Background; the Doppler redshift of light; the presence of Hydrogen and Helium all over the universe has led the scientists to conclude that the universe [in the form of matter] has come into being in the result of some sudden “Big Bang”. The simple version of the “Big Bang” theory is that prior to that moment, there was nothing; during and after that moment there was something: our universe.
Allah describes the origination of the universe as this:
Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a thing, He says to it, “Be,” and it becomes (2: 117)
The “Big Bang” resulted the formation of atoms/matter, which eventually led to the formation of a number of galaxies and billions and zillions of stars. Scientists discovered some methods by which they can observe the movements of different stars and galaxies. One of the methods to observe such movement is Doppler redshift of light [It determines how fast stars and galaxies are moving away from (the center of origination) by measuring the extent to which their light is stretched into the lower frequency, red part of the spectrum]. By using this method scientists have observed that stars and galaxies are continuously moving away; and thus, the universe is expanding. Science also explains that when something explodes, its substance spreads everywhere. Similarly, when the Big Bang occurred, the matter from its point of origin spread out in all directions which has continued to expand until now.
We constructed the universe with power, and We are expanding it (51: 47)
Do the disbelievers [in Allah’s existence] not see that the heavens and the earth were one mass, and We tore them apart? ………………………………… (21: 30)
Moreover, the splash of the Big Bang was not random. Whatever evolved, it has a purpose.
Blessed is He who placed constellations in the sky, and placed in it a lamp and an illuminating moon (25: 61)
At the time when Allah gave the information, the model of the universe was not known to human beings. It was thousand years later that people found the truth behind the systems of the universe [and truth behind] the luminosity of the sun and the moon [the sun is a hot glowing body of hydrogen and helium where hydrogen turns into helium in the process of nuclear fusion. This fusion not only produces heat but also light. The heat and light of the sun has been fulfilling the biological requirements of the earth for 3.7 billion years. The moon, however, does not produce its own light; it reflects the light which it derives from the sun.
Moreover, if there was no sun or a moon, it would have been hard to understand the existence of time. Thus, everything He created is based upon logic and a set system and for a reason.
It is He who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon; each floating in an orbit (21: 33)
It is He who made the sun a shining light and the moon a derived light and determined for it phases – that you may know the number of years and account [of time]. Allah has not created this except in truth. He details the signs for a people who know [that Allah is the Reality] (10: 5)
Observations show that all bodies [sun/stars, planets, and their moons] in the universe are in a constant state of motion. The sun [with its solar system] has been orbiting the center of the Milky way [galaxy] since its origination. Similarly, the earth is moving on its axis and on a fixed orbit round the sun with a constant speed [It takes 365.25days to complete its orbit round the sun; and 23 hours, 56 minutes and four seconds to complete its round on its axis]. This is the reason we see the sun rising and setting at a precise time for 4.5 billion years. Similarly, the Moon completes its orbit around the earth with precise speed [by taking 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, and 3 seconds to complete one lunar month (Actually the moon takes 27.3 days to complete one orbit around the earth. It takes 2.2 additional days to be visible to us as new moon)].
The sun and the moon [move] by precise calculation (55: 5)
It is not allowable for the sun to reach the moon, nor does the night overtakes the day, but each, in an orbit, is swimming (36: 40)
8.2 PROOFS ON THE EARTH AND WITHIN HUMAN BODY
And on earth are signs for the convinced. And within yourselves. Do you not see? (51: 20- 21)
The exploration of the universe made by humans has revealed that the earth is the only planet where water is present in suitable amount to maintain biological life on the entire planet. The quantity of water in the oceans is quite enough to form a rain cycle. The rain cycle is another amazing system which supplies water to those areas of land where water is hard to reach by any other means.
Water, in fact, is one of the essential elements of all biological life [including humans, animals, plants, bacteria, and algae]. If there was no water the existence of biological life would have been impossible to take place.
………………………… And We made from water every living thing. Will they not believe? (21: 30)
And the earth after that He spread. And from it, He produced its water and its pasture (79: 30-31)
Have they not seen that We drive the water [in clouds] to barren land and bring forth thereby crops from which their livestock eat and [they] themselves? Then do they not see? (32: 27)
And the earth; He set up for the creatures (55: 10)
And the earth – We spread it out – How well We prepared it! [for the creatures] (51: 48)
And the earth – We have spread it and cast therein firmly set mountains and caused to grow therein [something] of every well-balanced thing. And We have made for you therein means of living and [for] those for whom you are not providers (15: 19-20)
From the same material [soil, water, sunlight, and air] Allah creates a huge variety of plants and moving creatures.
On earth are adjacent terrains, and gardens of vines, and crops, and date-palms, from the same root or from distinct roots, irrigated with the same water. We make some taste better than others. In that are proof for people who reason (13: 4)
Allah created every living creature from water. Some of them crawl on their bellies, and some walk on two feet, and others walk on four. Allah creates whatever He wills. Allah is Capable of everything (24: 45)
And certainly, did We create man from an extract of clay (23: 12)
Let man(kind), consider his food. We pour down water in abundance. Then crack the soil open. And grow in it grains. And grapes and herbs. And olives and dates and luscious gardens. And fruits and vegetables. Enjoyment for you and your livestock. (80: 24-32)
Is it not amazing that from the same ingredients so many different creatures like plants, insects, animals, and humans come into life? Is it not amazing that these ingredients of soil, when turned into human form, start seeing, hearing, speaking and even thinking? It is Only Allah Who can do this. Allah is Great! Allahu Akbar!
How can you disbelieve in Allah when you were lifeless and He brought you to life…………………. (2: 28)
………………Are you being ungrateful to Him who created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then evolved you into a man? (18: 37)
Say, “It is He Who produced you; and made for you the hearing and the vision, and the organs. But rarely do you give thanks” (67: 23)
Among all the creatures, humans are the best creation who can not only make the best use of their mind [intellect] and body, but all the resources present in the universe [details in Chapter Nine]. It became possible for humans, only because Allah has fully equipped them with all the organs and sensors to explore the universe.
We created man in the best design (95: 4)
Life in any form [plant, animal, human] is not a haphazard process. Every living cell of an organism contains DNA [Deoxyribonucleic acid). It is the world’s best data storage which contains complete information and instructions inherited from the ancestor cells. This information/instruction determines the kind of the organism: whether it is a plant, an insect, an animal, or a human. Genes are made up of DNA and they act as transcribed instructions to convert consumed food into molecules. In the case of humans, these molecules turn into proteins – the building, growth, and development material of our body. Genes also determine when and where these proteins are to be produced. In common language, genes carry the instructions which determine whether a tissue will become a part of the brain, eyes, heart, nose etc. And what functions it will carry out. Thus, everything evolves, develops, and works in a programmed way. A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. These genes are biologically transferred to the next generation through a process of reproduction.
Without genes, it is impossible for any living creature to be born or grow.
(Allah) Who created and proportioned. And Who destined and guided (87: 2-3)
Every new life at the beginning is not strong enough to sustain. It therefore needs a protected environment. As Allah the Creator, He knows well the safety requirements of a new life. He, therefore, has created wombs in the females as the most secure place for a new life. The innermost lining of uterus is endometrium, which is meant for the implantation of the fertilized egg. It passes through different phases during the menstrual cycle. It becomes thick under the influence of estrogen hormone; which is the suitable time for the implantation of a fertilized egg. When the level of estrogen falls, the shedding phase begins. The average thickness of endometrium is 8 mm which increases further in pregnancy. During pregnancy, at least 9 mm thickness is required for proper implantation of the fetus. If due to any cause, this lining becomes thin, pregnancy cannot take place.
Allah knows what every female bear and every increase and decrease of the wombs. With Him, everything is by measure (13: 8)
The womb has an exceptionally strong muscle found only in females and designed for providing the fetus [baby] a protected environment in which to grow. There it (fetus) receives all the essential nutrients for growth from the mother’s body and stays protected against bacteria and infection. A mucous plug seals the womb and stops infections. The amniotic sac protects the fetus from germs, and the amniotic fluid keeps the baby protected from pressure and shocks outside the womb. Abdominal muscles offer an extra support and insulation, and the pubic bone and the spinal column provide the fetus with a harder protection on either side.
Did We not create you from an insignificant fluid? Then lodged it in a secure place. For a known term. We measured precisely. We are the best to measure (77: 20-23)
When human body attains its full form and comes to the world, it carries three vital signs of life: Heartbeat, nerve impulse and breathing. If any one of these signs is missing, the body is considered dead.
An adult body is composed of trillions of cells [about 37 trillion], each requiring energy to stay alive and function properly. The heart beats to send blood to all parts of the body, through a network of arteries and veins. Blood carries chemical substances including water, enzymes and nutrients from the food that has been processed by the digestive system to all cells of the body. If the heart stops beating, it means the flow of blood has stopped and cells are not getting any fuel and hence are dead.
To work under a system, each cell must function in coordination with the other. This coordination is done by the brain by sending nerve impulse/signal, which is electrochemical in nature. This nerve impulse/signal is sent through a very complicated network of nerve cells spreading all over the body. [These nerve cells are not physically joined together. There is a tiny space called synapse between the two cells. As nerve impulse is electrochemical in nature, it produces tiny sparks at synapse when passing from one nerve to another]. If this linkage among different organs breaks up, the system will collapse at once resulting in death.
Each living cell of our body needs a constant supply of oxygen. Cells need oxygen to convert our food nutrients [fuel] into energy. Lungs inhale air which contains oxygen. Lungs pass oxygen to the blood and the heart pumps this oxygenated blood to all the other cells of our body. In the process of converting nutrients into energy, some waste products are produced and one of them is carbon dioxide. We get rid of this carbon dioxide when we exhale. So, lungs perform dual actions, providing oxygen to our body and ridding the body of waste like carbon dioxide. If this supply of oxygen somehow stops for a few minutes, the first organ that is affected is the brain. Brain cells constantly need energy for controlling automatic body functions like heartbeat, digestion, and respiration. Heartbeat, nerve impulse and breathing are automatic in nature. We do not need to put in any effort to make them work. Any delay, of even minutes, in their function may cause death because they are related with the trillions of cells of our body. We constantly need them for our survival, but we hardly notice these functions which are so important for our survival. These organs never stop working but they slightly slow down when we sleep at night and return back to the normal pace when we wake up at dawn. Though humans love their life and love to live long but tend to take these vital body functions for granted without being thankful to the One who Created them.
By the racers panting [heart], Igniting sparks [nerve impulse]. Raiding at dawn. Raising clouds of dust [air]. Storming into the midst [lungs]. Indeed, the human being is ungrateful to his Rubb…………… (100: 1-7)
8.3 PROOFS IN THE ALTERNATION OF NIGHT AND DAY:
Allah not only created humans in the best of manner but also provided them with a suitable environment. Even in the breaking of dawn and falling of the night there is a purpose. At night, a gland in the human body secretes a hormone called melatonin which controls sleep and wake cycle. This hormone is switched on in the darkness and is automatically switched off in the light. It acts as a natural tranquillizer. At night when we sleep, our body comes to a rest. This is the time when the body builds muscles, renews, and repairs damaged tissues and replace old or dead cells, recharges brain functions and restores its energy level. Metabolism and all body functions slow down to recharge the body for the next day. Melatonin, which is automatically induced in darkness protects against a number of diseases like heart disease, blood pressure, diabetes, depression, Alzheimer’s and migraine headaches. It also helps in strengthening the immune system, plays a role in cancer prevention and it is an excellent antioxidant. How helpful is the darkness for our health! Did we ever wonder? Even in plants the process of photosynthesis comes to a halt at night because it can only take place during the day when there is enough light. Sunlight is as important as the darkness is because plants and all vegetation make their food in the presence of sunlight. During this process, plants absorb carbon dioxide which is harmful to human health and emit oxygen which is necessary for our survival. Photosynthesis is the only process through which oxygen is produced naturally on earth. Plants are necessary for us because they are not only the producers of oxygen, but they are the primary source of our food. The occurrence of day and night is thus very important for health and survival of humans. Is the occurrence of day and night not a sign that they are created by some Knowing Entity?
Indeed, in the creation of heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are signs for those of understanding (3: 190)
And by the night as it closes in. And by the dawn when it breathes (81: 17-18)
And it is He who made the night a covering for you, and sleep for rest; and He made the day a revival (25: 47)
8.4 PROOFS IN THE SKIES:
All heavenly bodies [sun, planets, their moons, and stars etc.] are suspending in the universe without any support.
He created the heavens without pillars that you can see,……………………….(31: 10)
Moreover, to make this earth livable and manageable for its creatures, Allah has created a protective atmosphere [invisible to human eye but detectable through other means] around the earth. It is divided into five layers. It is thickest near the surface and thins out with height until it eventually merges with space. Such an atmosphere does not exist around any other planet. The pull of earth’s gravity and hydrostatic equilibrium keep these layers in place.
………… He holds up the sky lest it falls on earth – except by His permission……. (22: 65)
The atmospheric layers are distinguished on the basis of their characteristics such as temperature and composition [air content and atmospheric pressure/temperature is different in each layer]. It is the presence of these layers that makes the Earth livable. They trap heat; thus, we have a comfortably livable temperature. They also trap gases; and oxygen is one among them which is essential for life. One of these protective layers does not allow water vapors to escape into space. These water vapors form clouds in the sky which pour down water as rain on the earth to generate life. Thus, each layer has a unique and specific function.
Closer to the Earth is the first layer; troposphere and contains half of the earth’s atmosphere. It is suitable for birds and insects to fly. Birds are created for different purposes [details in Chapter Nine]. Different insects like the honeybee help in the pollination of plants. They pollinate 70 of the 100 crops species that feed 90% of the world. If there were no honeybees, there would be very few plants, fruits and vegetables and fewer animals that eat plants and thus there would be a scarcity of food. Circulation of wind also occurs in this layer. Wind also plays a vital role in the pollination of plants. It carries pollen grains from one plant to another and is also helpful in seed dispersal. It also plays a role in the nutrient cycling of the soil by dispersing soil particles. Weather also occurs in this layer [blowing or circulation of air, formation of clouds etc.]. In simple words, the troposphere serves as a path for air and clouds. The highest point of Troposphere is Tropopause. It is a point where rising water vapors cannot go higher because they change into ice and are trapped. If there were no cold trap, water vapor would escape into the space, clouds would not form and there would be no water cycle and earth would lose all its water. Has this protective and helpful layer round the earth formed on its own?
Between the first and the second layer of atmosphere [Troposphere and Stratosphere] there is a thin layer of gas, consisting of three oxygen atoms [O3]. This thin layer of gas is called Ozone. Ozone shields the life on earth from the biologically damaging ultraviolet radiation of the sun. Ultraviolet radiation causes damage at molecular level to the fundamental building block of life – DNA. Changes in the DNA molecules mean that protein building enzymes cannot ‘read’ the DNA code. As a result, distorted proteins are made, which produce defected or deformed bodies.
And We made the sky a protected ceiling; yet they turn away from its wonders (21: 32)
…………………….You see no discrepancy in the creation of the Compassionate. Look again. Can you see any cracks? Then look again, and again, and your sight will return to you dazzled and exhausted (67: 3-4)
Will you still disbelieve in the existence of Allah?
8.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS
These are the verses of Allah which We recite to you in truth. Then in what statement after Allah and His verses will they believe? (45: 6)
And these examples We present to the people, but none will understand them except those of knowledge (29: 43)
And We have certainly revealed to you verses [which are] clear proofs, and no one would deny them except the defiantly disobedient (2: 99)
Those who do not know say, “Why does Allah not speak to us or there come to us a sign?” Thus spoke those before them like their words. Their hearts resemble each other. We have shown clearly the signs to a people who are certain [in faith]. (2: 118) So do they need any more proofs of Allah’s existence?
Say, “Look at what is in heavens and the earth.” But signs and warnings are of no avail for people who do not believe. (10: 101)
The only quality which makes humans distinct from the other biological creatures is that they can combine their observations with logic and reason.
.. do you assume that most of them hear or understand? They are just like cattle, but even more errant in their way (25: 44)
8.6 THE COMMAND OF ALLAH
Say, “Indeed, I have been forbidden to worship those you call upon besides Allah once the clear proofs have come to me from my Rubb, and I have been commanded to submit to the Rubb of the worlds. (40: 66)