Last Updated: November 2023

All biological life, including humans, ensures its survival on earth through reproduction.


If we see reproduction from the perspective of science, we come to know that two distinct germ cells [haploids/gametes] from a male and a female fuse to generate a new body cell [diploid/zygote]. As a result of this fusion, the data [record of genetic information] from a male and female also gets transferred to this new cell. Thus, a new individual with a complete genetic record comes into form. As a complete genetic record gets secured in a new body [for its transmission to the upcoming generation], the death or elimination of a previous generation does not affect the continuation of a genetic record. The details of these studies reveal that reproduction is one of the marvels of Allah, by means of which all biological life, including humans, not only multiplies but also survives as a species.    

[Allah is] Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you from yourselves, mates, and among the cattle, mates; He multiplies you thereby. There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing (42: 11)

Every new biological life needs food and shelter to sustain its life. Humans in this respect have always been fearful of the shortage of different means of food and other provisions of sustenance. As this chapter is reserved for another topic, the source of these fears will be discussed in the next chapters. However, prevention of the generation/reproduction of a new life due to fear of privation is an unfavorable practice in the sight of Allah because it may set a trend and cause the extinction of a the human race. Prevention on the grounds of health problems of a mother is however an exception.

And do not kill your children for fear of poverty. We provide for them, and for you. Killing them is a grave sin [mistake] (17: 31)

We have seen in Chapter Four Allah has created the earth to fulfill all needs of all kinds of [biological] lives. An individual whale or an elephant, as already mentioned in Chapter Twelve, eats tons of food daily. Moreover, in deserts where there is a scarcity of food and water, several creatures still survive in that environment. Who provides sustenance to billions of such creatures every day?

How many a creature there is that does not carry its provision? Allah provides for them, and for you. He is the Hearer, the Knowledgeable (29: 60)

No other creature controls the growth of its population, yet we do not see the number of any creature surpassing the balance in nature. It is only humans who assume that they will lose all resources if their population exceeds a certain number.

Humans are the only creatures that can deliberately control the growth of their new generation by taking different measures. However, the outcome of such control has never been so fruitful. It can be witnessed that societies where collective measures were taken to control the growth of their population have now disturbed the ratio of male to female in their populations. Moreover, they have a disturbed ratio of young and old population, which have given rise to multiple social and moral problems [details in next chapters].

Lost are those who kill their children foolishly, with no basis in knowledge, and forbid what Allah has provided for them – innovations about Allah. They have gone astray. They are not guided (6: 140)

Despite following the rules [religion] given by Allah, some human societies tend to develop different cultures which consist of their desires. Such cultures give them temporary relief from some trouble or pleasure of some kind, they however, create more trouble at a later stage. In some cultures, the birth of a female is not taken with a happy gesture.

And one of them is informed of [the birth of] a female, his face becomes dark, and he suppresses grief. He hides himself from the people because of the ill of which he has been informed. Should he keep it in humiliation or burry it in the ground? Unquestionably, evil is what they decide (16: 58-59)

If there are no females, there will be no further generation of humankind.

O mankind, fear your Rubb, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women. And fear Allah, through whom you ask one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is ever, over you, an Observer (4: 1)

And it is He Who, from fluid, created the human being. Then He made relationships through marriage and mating. Your Rubb is Omnipotent (25: 54)

To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth; He creates what He wills. He gives to whom He wills female [children], and He gives to whom He wills males. Or He makes them [both], males and females, and He renders whom He wills barren. Indeed, He is Knowing and Competent (42: 49-50)

And of His signs is that He created for you mates from among yourselves, so that you may find tranquility in them; and He planted love and compassion between you. In this are signs for people who reflect (30: 21)

Your women are cultivation for you; so approach your cultivation whenever you like, and send ahead for yourselves. And fear Allah, and know that you will meet Him. And give good news to the believers (2: 223)  

Reproduction is important for the existence of mankind. Deviation from this system means devastation or extinction of humanity.

And [mention] Lot, when he said to his people, “Do you commit immorality while you are seeing*? (27: 54) *Knowing

Do you approach males among the worlds and leave what your Rubb has created for you as mates? But you are people transgressing (26: 165-166)

You approach men and cut off the way [for reproduction of your own race] and commit lewdness in your gatherings.” ………………. (29: 29)

What can be more disastrous for humankind than the termination of their own kind by themselves?

Allah has given you mates from among yourselves; and has produced for you, from your mates, children and grandchildren; and has provided you with good things. Will they then believe in falsehood, and refuse Allah’s favors? (16: 72)

Abandonment of the ways of reproduction and adoption of those leading to the termination of a human race is thus a punishable crime in the sight of the Creator.

Those of your women who commit lewdness, you must have four witnesses against them, from among you. If they testify, confine them to the homes until death claims them, or Allah makes a way for them. If two men among you commit it, punish them both. But if they repent and reform, leave them alone. Allah is Redeemer, Full of Mercy. Repentance is available from Allah for those who commit evil out of ignorance, and then repent soon after. These – Allah will relent towards them. Allah is Knowing and Wise. But repentance is not available for those who commit evils, until when death approaches one of them, he says, “Now I repent,” nor for those who die as disbelievers. These – We have prepared for them a painful torment (4: 15-18)

As for those who accuse their own spouses, but have no witnesses except themselves, the testimony of one of them is equivalent to four testimonies, if he swears by Allah that he is truthful. And the fifth time, that Allah’s curse be upon him, if he is a liar. But punishment shall be averted from her, if she swears four times by Allah, that he is a liar. And the fifth time, that Allah’s wrath be upon her, if he is truthful. Were it not for Allah’s grace upon you, and His mercy, and that Allah is Conciliatory and Wise. (24: 6-10)

Accusation of such acts is a great sin:

Those who slander honorable, innocent, believing women are cursed in this life and in the Hereafter. They will have a terrible punishment (24: 23)

If they fail to bring the witnesses, then in Allah’s sight, they are liars (24: 13)

Those who accuse chaste women, then cannot bring four witnesses, whip them eighty lashes, and do not ever accept their testimony. For these are the immoral. Except for those who repent afterwards, and reform; for Allah is Forgiving and Merciful (24: 4-5)

Spreading a baseless rumor or accusation is a punishable crime because the outcome of such an accusation or rumor might be drastically damaging for the accused. Thus, no accusation is trivial; it should be dealt with strictly.

When you rumored it with your tongues and spoke with your mouths what you had no knowledge of, and you considered it trivial; but according to Allah, it is serious. When you heard it, you should have said, “It is not for us to repeat this. By Your Glory, this is a serious slander.” Allah cautions you never to return to the like of it, if you are believers (24: 15-17)

 Those who slander honorable, innocent, believing women are cursed in this life and in the Hereafter. They will have a terrible punishment. On the Day when their tongues, and their hands and their feet will testify against them regarding what they used to do. (24: 23-24) [Details of the punishment in this life in next chapters. Details of the punishment in the Hereafter have already been given in Chapter Six]

That Day, Allah will pay them in full their deserved recompense, and they will know that it is Allah who is the perfect in justice (24: 25)

Evil words are for evil men [people], and evil men [people] are [subjected] to evil words. And good words are for good men [people], and good men are (an object) of good words. Those [good people] are declared innocent of what the slanderers say. For them is forgiveness and noble provision (24: 26)


Marriage is a consensual contract that assigns duties and responsibilities to both males and females and safeguards their rights. A relationship without such a contract causes a number of social problems and devastates the social system and its peace. Moreover, such a relationship creates multiple social problems for a child who comes to life because of it. Allah thus makes a marriage contract mandatory if a couple wants to start a relationship.

And do not come near adultery. It is immoral, and an evil way (17: 32)

Violation of the rules given by Allah disrupts social peace; it is therefore a punishable crime.

The adulteress and the adulterer – whip each one of them a hundred lashes and let no pity towards them overcome you regarding Allah’s law, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day. And let a group of believers witness their punishment* (24: 2) *[Seeing them punished will deter people from doing so]

As mentioned in the above section, Allah has planted attraction in both genders for each other. It is thus natural to have an inclination towards each other. Thus, to avoid any social or moral problems, it is important to bind individuals in a marriage contract.

And wed the singles among you, and those who are fit among your servants and maids. If they are poor, Allah will enrich them from His bounty. Allah is All-encompassing, All-knowing (24: 32)

A marriage bond obligates both parties to perform their duties if they wish to enjoy its benefits. The rights and duties of both men and women have been set by Allah.

Give women (upon marriage) their (bridal) gifts graciously*. But if they give up willingly to you anything of it, then take it in satisfaction and ease (4: 4) *from properties [Reference in Section 15.6]

Justice, generosity, respect, and kindness bring hearts closer to each other.

O you who believe! It is not permitted for you to inherit [receive/get] women against their will. And do not coerce them in order to take away some of what you had given them, unless they commit a proven adultery. And live with them in kindness. If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike something in which Allah has placed much good (4: 19) 

But if you want to replace one wife with another and you have given one of them a great amount (in gifts), do not take (back) from it anything. Would you take it in injustice and manifest sin? (4: 20)

And how can you take it back, when you have been intimate with one another, and they have received from you a solid commitment*? (4: 21) *through a marriage contract.

Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, as Allah has given some of them an advantage over others, and because they spend out of their wealth…………. (4: 34)

Human relationships work better on reciprocation; if one does good to someone, it should be returned in a better way. A wife must reciprocate a providing and a protecting husband by being sincere to him.

………… The good women are obedient, guarding [themselves from immoral acts] what Allah would have them guard …… (4: 34)

Disloyalty or cheating, however, has nothing to defend; it should be punished. The purpose of punishment, as mentioned in Chapter Fourteen, is not humiliation but correction.

………………As for those from whom you fear disloyalty, admonish them, and abandon them in their beds, [if they don’t cease to do so] then strike them. But if they obey you, seek no way against them. Allah is Sublime, Great (4: 34)

Extramarital relations, whether from a man’s or a woman’s side, are intolerable in the sight of Allah.

The adulteress and the adulterer – whip each one of them a hundred lashes and let no pity towards them overcome you regarding Allah’s law, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day. And let a group of believers witness their punishment* (24: 2) *[Seeing them punished will deter people from doing so]

As a marriage contract assigns duties and responsibilities, Allah puts no restrictions on a man having more than one wife if he takes responsibility and fulfils duties with full honesty.

……………. Marry the women you like – two, or three, or four. But if you fear you will not be fair, then one, or what you already have. That makes it more likely that you avoid bias/injustice. (4: 3)

Here it is important to note that allowed [at a time] are four but recommended by Allah is one. Permission for more than one is given because a situation sometimes emerges where some women [like widows or orphan girls] need protection, help, or support from a man. If there is no other suitable match, the presence of such a clause makes it easy for an unprotected woman to adjust to a society with honor and dignity. Moreover, if the first wife gets disabled due to some reasons, this clause gives her security and her husband a legal chance to fulfill his natural urge.

However, in normal circumstances, one wife is recommended.

You will not be able to treat women with equal fairness, no matter how much you desire it. But do not be so biased as to leave another suspended……………. (4: 129)

If a wife finds mistreatment or desertion on her husband’s side, she is allowed to take a release from him. However, this should be done when all attempts at reconciliation have failed.

If a woman fears maltreatment or desertion from her husband, there is no fault in them if they reconcile their differences. Souls are prone to avarice [greed/desire]; yet if you do what is good, and practice piety – Allah is Cognizant of what you do (4: 128)

……..If you make amends, and act righteously – Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. (4: 129)

If you fear a breach between the two, appoint an arbiter from his family and an arbiter from her family. If they wish to reconcile, Allah will bring them together. Allah is Knowledgeable, Expert (4: 35)

And if they separate [by divorce], Allah will enrich each from His abundance. Allah is Bounteous and Wise (4: 130)


O Prophet! If any of you divorce women, divorce them during their period of purity, and calculate their term And be pious before Allah, your Rubb..……………. (65: 1)

The waiting period is made mandatory to make it evident if a woman conceives a child. Such clarification is for the benefit of a child and a woman herself because it is the duty of a father to provide for the needs of his child. In the absence of clarity about the ownership of the child, the mother and her child might suffer from financial and social problems.

Divorced women shall wait by themselves for three periods. And it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allah has created in their wombs, if they believe in Allah and the Last Day. Meanwhile, their husbands have the better right to take them back, if they desire reconciliation. And women have rights similar to their obligations, according to what is fair. But men have a degree over them. Allah is Mighty and Wise (2: 228) 

O You who have believed, when you marry believing women and then divorce them before you have touched them, then there is not for you any waiting period to count concerning them. So provide for them and give them a gracious release (33: 49)

As for those of your women who have reached menopause, if you have any doubts, their term shall be three months – and also for those who have not yet menstruated. As for those who are pregnant, their term shall be until they have delivered. Whoever fears Allah – He will make things easy for him. This is the ordinance of Allah, which He sent down to you. He will remit his sins, and will amplify his reward (65: 4-5)

In case of a husband’s death:

As for those among you who die and leave widows behind, their widows shall wait by themselves for four months and ten days. When they have reached their term, there is no blame on you regarding what they might honorably do with themselves. Allah is fully acquainted with what you do (2: 234)

There is no blame upon you for that to which you [indirectly] allude concerning a proposal to [widow] women or for what you conceal within yourselves. Allah knows that you will have them in mind. But do not promise them secretly except for saying a proper saying. And do not determine to undertake a marriage contract until the decreed period reaches its end. And know that Allah knows what is within yourselves, so beware of Him. And know that Allah is Forgiving and Forbearing (2: 235)

Those of you who die and leave wives behind – a will shall provide their wives with support for a year, provided they do not leave. If they leave, you are not to blame for what they do with themselves, provided it is reasonable. Allah is Mighty and Wise (2: 240)


Allah provides full security for a divorced woman.

And divorced women shall be provided for, equitably – a duty upon the righteous. Allah thus explains His revelations to you, so that you may understand. (2: 241-242)

……………….. And do not evict them from their homes, nor shall they leave, unless they have committed a proven adultery. These are the limits of Allah – whoever oversteps Allah’s limits has wronged his own soul. You never know; Allah may afterwards bring about a new situation (65: 1)

Allow them [divorced women] to reside where you reside, according to your means, and do not harass them in order to make things difficult for them. If they are pregnant, spend on them until they give birth. And if they nurse your infant, give them their payment. And conduct your relation in amity. But if you disagree, then let another woman nurse him. The wealthy shall spend according to his means; and he whose resources are restricted shall spend according to what Allah has given him. Allah never burdens a soul beyond what He has given it. Allah will bring ease after hardship. How many a town defied the command of its Rubb and His messengers? So We held it strictly accountable, and We punished it with a dreadful punishment. It tasted the result of its decisions, and the outcome of its decisions was perdition. Allah has prepared for them a severe retribution. So beware of Allah, O you who possess intellect and have faith. Allah has sent down to you a Reminder/the Quran (65: 6-10)

Mothers may nurse their infants for two whole years, for those who desire to complete the nursing – period. It is duty of the father to provide for them and clothe them in a proper manner. No soul shall be burdened beyond its capacity. No mother shall be harmed on account of her child, and no father shall be harmed on account of his child. The same duty rests upon the heir. If the couple desire weaning, by mutual consent and consultation, they commit no error by hiring nursing-mothers, as long as you pay them fairly. And be wary of Allah, and know that Allah is Seeing of what you do (2: 233)

There is no blame upon you if you divorce women, you have not touched nor specified for them an obligation. But give them [a gift of] compensation – the wealthy according to his capability and the poor according to his capability – a provision according to what is acceptable, a duty upon the doers of good. And if you divorce them before you have touched them and you have already specified for them an obligation, then [give] half of what you specified – unless they forego the right or the one in whose hand is the marriage contract foregoes it. And to forego it is nearer to righteousness. And do not forget graciousness between you. Indeed Allah, of whatever you do, is Seeing (2: 236-237)

……………..And it is not lawful for you to take anything of what you have given them unless both fear that they will not be able to keep (within) the limits of Allah, then there is no blame upon either of them concerning that by which she ransoms herself. These are the limits of Allah, so do not transgress them. And whoever transgresses the limits of Allah – it is those who are wrongdoers (2: 229) 

If he divorces her, she shall not be lawful for him again until she has married another husband. If the latter divorces her [or dies], then there is no blame on them for reuniting, provided they think they can maintain Allah’s limits. These are Allah’s limits; He makes them clear to the people who know. (2: 230)

If the above clause were not present in the laws of Allah, men would take unfair advantage over women by marrying and divorcing them whenever they desired. In such a case women would be humiliated and at a loss.

And when you divorce women and they have fulfilled their term, either retain them according to acceptable terms*1 or release them according to acceptable terms*2, and do not keep them, intending harm, to transgress [against them]. And whoever does that has certainly wronged himself. And do not take the verses of Allah in jest. And remember the favor of Allah upon you and what has been revealed to you of the Book and wisdom by which He instructs you. And fear Allah and know that Allah is Knowing of all things (2: 231) *1[Ref: (65: 6-10)] *2[Ref: (2: 230) and (2: 232)]

And when you divorce women and they have fulfilled their term, do not prevent them from remarrying their [former] husbands if they agree among themselves on an acceptable basis. That is instructed to whoever of you believes in Allah and the Last Day. That is better for you and purer, and Allah knows, and you know not (2: 232)

Divorce is twice. Then, either *1keep (her) in an acceptable manner or *2release (her) with good treatment………………. (2: 229) *1[Ref (65: 6-10)] *2[(2: 230) and (2: 232)]

Once they have reached their term, either retain them honorably, or separate from them honorably. And call to witness two just people from among you and give upright testimony for Allah. By that is exhorted whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day. And whoever fears Allah – He will make a way out for him. And will provide for him from where he never expected. Whoever relies on Allah – He will suffice him. Allah will accomplish His Purpose. Allah has set a measure to all things (65: 2-3)


It is decreed for you: when death approaches one of you, and he leaves wealth, to make a testament in favor of the parents and the relatives, fairly and correctlya duty upon the righteous. But whoever changes it after he has heard it, the guilt is upon those who change it. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. Should someone suspect bias or injustice on the part of a testator, and then reconciles between them, he commits no sin. Allah is Forgiving and Merciful (2: 180-182)

……………..and those of [blood] relationship are more entitled [to inheritance] in the decree of Allah than the [other] believers and the emigrants, except that you may do to your close associates a kindness [through bequest]. That was in the Book inscribed (33: 6)

Men receive a share of what their parents and relatives leave, and women receive their share of what their parents and relatives leave; be it little or much – a legal share. (4: 7)


If the distribution is attended by the relatives, and the orphans, and the needy, give them something out of it, and speak to them kindly (4: 8)

We have seen [in the above sections of this chapter] men have more responsibilities: they are supposed to give gracious bridal gifts to their wives upon marriage [Ref (4: 4)]; they are supposed to provide all necessities to their wives and children [Ref (4: 34) (2: 33)]; and they are even supposed to look after those women whom they have divorced [Ref (2: 241-242)]. As men have more responsibilities and are supposed to spend more, they are given a larger share of the inheritance than women.

Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, as Allah has given some of them an advantage over others, and because they spend out of their wealth ……………………(4: 34)


Allah instructs you regarding your children: The male receives the equivalent of the share of two females. If they are daughters, more than two, they get two-thirds of what he leaves. If there is only one, she gets one-half. As for the parents, each gets one-sixth of what he leaves, if he had children. If he had no children, and his parents inherit from him, his mother gets one-third. If he has siblings, his mother gets one-sixth. After fulfilling any bequest and paying off debts. Your parents and your children – you do not know which are closer to you in welfare. This is Allah’s Law. Allah is Knowing and Judicious (4: 11)

Do not wish for that by which Allah has made some of you exceed others. For men is a share of what they have earned, and for women is a share of what they have earned. And ask Allah of His bounty. Indeed Allah is ever, of all things, Knowing (4: 32)

To everyone We have assigned beneficiaries in what is left by parents and relatives. Those with whom you have made an agreement [of marriage], give them their share. Allah is Witness over all things (4: 33)

You get one-half of what your wives leave behind, if they had no children. If they had children, you get one-fourth of what they leave. After fulfilling any bequest and paying off debts. They get one-fourth of what you leave behind, if you have no children. If you have children, they get one-eighth of what you leave. After fulfilling any bequest and paying off debts. If a man or woman leaves neither parents nor children, but has a brother or sister, each of them gets one-sixth. If there are more siblings, they share one-third. After fulfilling any bequest and paying off debts, without any prejudice. This is a will from Allah. Allah is Knowing and Clement (4: 12)

They request from you a ruling. Say, “Allah gives you a ruling concerning one having neither descendants nor ascendants [as heirs].” If a man dies, leaving no child but a sister, she will have half of what he left. And he inherits from her if she [dies and] has no child. But if there are two sisters [or more], they will have two-third of what he left. If there are both brothers and sisters, the male will have the share of two females. Allah makes clear to you [His law], lest you go astray. And Allah is Knowing of all things (4: 176)


As mentioned in Chapter Fourteen, norms and ethics came to human society through guidance from Allah. If such guidance were not present, humans would have been living a life like animals.

Do not marry women whom your fathers married, except what is already past. That is improper, indecent, and a bad custom. Forbidden for you are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your paternal aunts, your maternal aunts, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your foster-mothers who nursed you, your sisters through nursing, your wives’ mothers, and your stepdaughters in your guardianship – born of wives you have gone into – but if you have not gone into them, there is no blame on you. And the wives of your genetic sons, and marrying two sisters simultaneously. Except what is past. Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And all married women, except those you rightfully possess. This is Allah’s decree, binding upon you. Permitted for you are those that lie outside these limits, provided you seek them in legal marriage, with gifts from your property, seeking wedlock, not prostitution. If you wish to enjoy them, then give them their dowry – a legal obligation. You commit no error by agreeing to any change to the dowry. Allah is All-Knowing, Most Wise (4: 22-24)


Allah has clarified the relations that cannot be taken into a marriage contract. In the case of the adoption of a child, the child must be made aware of his or her true relatives so that no confusion should emerge at the time of his/her marriage.

………………….And He has not made your adopted sons your [true] sons. That is [mere] your saying by your mouths, but Allah says the truth, and He guides to the [right] way. Call them by [the name of] their fathers; it is more just in the sight of Allah. But if you do not know their fathers – then they are your brothers in religion and those entrusted to you. And there is no blame upon you for that in which you have erred but [only for] what your hearts intended. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful (33: 4-5)

Sometimes social pressures and fears prevent a person from taking even the right step. In such a case, precedent may help provide courage. Allah chose His Messenger to establish such a precedent.

When you [O Muhammad] said to him whom Allah had blessed, and you had favored, “Keep your wife to yourself, and fear Allah.” But you hid within yourself what Allah was to reveal. And you feared the people, but it was Allah you were supposed to fear. Then, when Zaid* ended his relationship with her, We gave her to you in marriage, that there may be no restriction for believers regarding the wives of their adopted sons, when their relationship has ended. The command of Allah was fulfilled. There is no blame on the prophet regarding what Allah has ordained for him. Such is the pattern of Allah among those [prophets] who passed before. The command of Allah is an absolute decree. (33: 37-38) *Zaid was an adopted son of Prophet Muhammad [PBUH]


And let those who do not find the means to marry abstain, until Allah enriches them from His bounty…………….. (24: 33)  

If poor financial conditions do not permit a person to support a free woman as his wife, then he may marry a slave-girl.

And whoever among you cannot [find] the means to marry free believing women, then [he may marry] from those whom your right hands possess of believing slave girls. And Allah is most knowing about your faith. You [believers] of one another. So marry them with the permission of their people and give them their due compensation according to what is acceptable. [They should be] chaste, neither [of] those who commit adultery nor those who take [secret] lovers. But once they are sheltered in marriage, if they should commit adultery, then for them is half the punishment for free women. This is for him among you who fears sin, but to be patient is better for you. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful (4: 25)

The history of slavery is very old; it has been operating since ancient times. Though it has been legally banned all over the world, reports of the International Labor Organization reveal that it is still present in different forms in many parts of the world. Guidance on such an issue is, therefore, always needed.

………………And do not compel your [slave] girls to prostitution, seeking the materials of this life, if they desire to remain chaste. Should anyone compel them – after their compulsion [if they do so], Allah is Forgiving and Merciful [towards those girls because they were compelled to do so] (24: 33) However, those who compel them cannot escape the punishment of Allah [details about the punishment from Allah in next life have already been given in Chapter Six; details about the punishment in present life next chapters].


Marriage is not just the union of two individuals; it actually lays the foundation of an institution from which generations learn the basic code of life. If any of the mentors of this primary institution is an unbeliever and does not know the basic teachings, how can he or she transmit them to the next generations? We will see in the next chapter that the impact of home learning is quite strong which cannot be unlearned so easily. The inclusion of a faithless person in a family deforms the true values of a recommended life and thus ruins generations.

Do not marry idolatresses [polytheist], unless they have believed. A believing maid is better than an idolatress, even if you like her. And do not marry idolaters, unless they have believed. A believing servant is better than an idolater, even if you like him. These call to the Fire, but Allah calls to the Garden and to forgiveness, by His leave. He makes clear His communications to the people, that they may be mindful. (2: 221) [details about the Fire and the Garden have already been given in Chapter Six]

Religion of Allah, as mentioned in the previous chapters, has been running in human societies since the very beginning. Though some previous sects have brought some changes and forgotten a part of it, they still believe in the same Commanding Authority [Allah] and the Last Day. As they believe in Allah and the Last Day, they are still cautious of their behavior. The mistakes they make can be fixed by reminding them of the Original Message. They are thus far better than those who simply refuse to obey Allah and follow their desires or those who have invented multiple gods and are obedient to false commands.

…….all good things are made lawful for you …………………..So are chaste believing women from the people who were given the Scripture before you, provided you give them their dowries, and take them in marriage, not in adultery, nor as mistresses. But whoever rejects faith, his work will be in vain, and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers (5: 5)

We learned in Chapter Six that belief in the truthfulness of all messengers generates respect for all communities of humanity. It is not that people of the Scripture have totally forgotten the Message of Allah; among them are the righteous too.

They are not alike. Among the People of the Scripture is a community that is upright; they recite Allah’s revelations throughout the night, and they prostrate themselves (3: 113)

They believe in Allah and the Last Day, and they enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and hasten to good deeds. And those are among the righteous. (3: 114) 

Transgressors or half-hearted believers, however, have remained a part of every community of every prophet. They are the people who do not take verses of Allah seriously. Due to this reason, when selecting a life-partner from their own community, or from another community, they tend to select the like-minded.

The adulterer shall marry none but an adulteress or an idolatress; and the adulteress shall marry none but an adulterer or an idolater. That has been prohibited for the believers (24: 3)

However, it is not recommended to judge one partner on the basis of the character of the other.

Allah presents an example of those who disbelieved: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. They were under two of Our righteous servants but betrayed them, so those prophets did not avail them from Allah at all, and it was said, “Enter the Fire with those who enter.” And Allah presents an example of those who believed: the wife of Pharaoh, when she said, “My Rubb, build for me near You a house in Paradise and save me from Pharaoh and his deeds and save me from the wrongdoing people.” (66: 10-11)


It is not for a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, that they should [thereafter] have any choice about their affair. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger has certainly strayed into clear error (33: 36)

O you who believe! Do not place your opinions above that of Allah and His Messenger, and fear Allah. Allah is Hearing and Knowing (49: 1)

And remember the favor of Allah upon you and His covenant with which He bound you when you said, “We hear, and we obey”; and fear Allah. Indeed, Allah is Knowing of that within the breasts (5: 7) [Details in Chapter Thirteen]

And do not be like those who say, “We have heard,” while they do not hear* (8: 22) *they do not pay attention or take it seriously.

Indeed, Allah is with those who fear Him and those who are doers of good (16: 128)

We have sent down to you clarifying revelations, and examples of those who passed on before you, and advice for the righteous (24: 34)

We have not sent down to you the Quran that you be distressed. But only as a reminder for those who fear [Allah] (20: 2-3)

………….Allah does not intend to make difficulty for you, but He intends to purify you and complete His favor upon you that you may be grateful (5: 6)

The believers are only those who when Allah is mentioned, their hearts become fearful, and when His verses are recited to them, it increases them in faith; and upon their Rubb they rely (8: 2)

Allah wants to make clear to you [the lawful from the unlawful] and guide you to the [good] practices of those before you and to accept your repentance. And Allah is Knowing and Wise (4: 26)

And Allah wants to lighten for you [your difficulties]; and mankind was created weak (4: 28)

Allah intends to redeem you, but those who follow their desires want you to turn away utterly (4: 27)

And if you obey most of those upon the earth, they will mislead you from the way of Allah. They follow not except assumptions, and they are not but falsifying (6: 116)

This is My path, straight, so follow it. And do not follow the other paths, lest they divert you from His path. All this He has enjoined upon you, that you may refrain from wrongdoing (6: 153)

[Note please: This chapter indicated the rules given by Allah. The consequences of overlooking these rules will be discussed in next chapters]

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